civilization v mobile


﹛﹛As the age of COVID-19 wanes, Arts Fuse critics have come up with a guide to film, dance, visual art, theater, and music. Please check with venues about whether the event is available by streaming or is in person. More offerings will be added as they come in.



﹛﹛Complete Schedule

﹛﹛The theater is now open with a celebration of Big Screen Classics. From classic Hollywood hits to foreign films, from action-adventure movies to cult classics, these are some of the theater*s favorite movies larger-than-life on the glorious big screen.


﹛﹛The Kendall is now open with a limited selection of films.

﹛﹛Clayne Crawford in scene from The Killing of Two Lovers.

﹛﹛The Killing of Two Lovers

﹛﹛Coming to the Kendall Square Cinema

﹛﹛David (Clayne Crawford) desperately tries to keep his family together during a separation from his wife. They both agree to see other people, but David struggles to accept his wife*s new relationship. The Hollywood Reporter calls the film ※a transfixing drama without a wasted word or a single inessential scene. (Arts Fuse Review)

﹛﹛Virtual Coolidge

﹛﹛A scene from About Endlessness. Photo: Magnolia Pictures.

﹛﹛About Endlessness

﹛﹛Now Streaming

﹛﹛Roy Andersson*s (A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence) latest film is a reflection on human life in all its beauty and cruelty, its splendor and banality. We wander through a dreamlike vision, gently guided by our Scheherazade-esque narrator. Inconsequential moments take on the significance of huge historical events: a couple floats over a war-torn Cologne; on the way to a birthday party, a father stops to tie his daughter*s shoelaces in the pouring rain; teenage girls dance outside a cafe; a defeated army marches to a prisoner-of-war camp. Arts Fuse review

﹛﹛Duty Free

﹛﹛A documentary that sets out to teach a lesson about how we should value senior citizens. A 75-year-old immigrant mother loses her job as hotel housekeeper. Her son takes her on a bucket list vacation that strengthens the family bonds.

﹛﹛In Silico

﹛﹛A documentary about a brilliant neuroscientist who, frustrated with his field*s acceptance of the status quo, goes on an audacious 10-year quest to simulate the entire human brain on supercomputers. In the end, the mission isn*t about pushing science forward. It*s about the hunger for power, greed, ego, and fame.

﹛﹛Us Kids

﹛﹛Us Kids chronicles the March For Our Lives movement over the course of several years. The documentary alternates its focus on Florida*s Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School survivors Sam Fuentes, Emma Gonz芍lez, David Hogg, Jaclyn Corin, and Cameron Kasky as they help forge the largest youth protest in American history, part of an attempt to build an inclusive and unprecedented movement that addresses racial justice, a growing public health crisis, and make change in a resistant political system.


﹛﹛Under the Brattlite/Brattle is showing World Cinema, Cult Cinema, one-offs, documentaries and classics. Below are current recommendations.

﹛﹛Punk The Capital

﹛﹛The documentary Punk the Capital captures a transformative period, situating DC punk and DC HardCore within the larger narratives of rock &n* roll. Featuring recently unearthed Super-8 film of bands like Bad Brains and interviews with legends like Henry Rollins and Ian MacKaye, the film explores why the sounds and ideas from this influential music scene continue to inspire around the world.

﹛﹛The Country

﹛﹛Icelandic director Grimur Hakonarson*s film revolves around the middle-aged Inga, who operates a dairy farm along with her spouse Reynir. They work without rest to keep up a farm that has been in his family for generations. When Reynir dies, she discovers they*re deep in debt to the local agricultural co-op, which was supposed to be pledged to support them. Infuriated, Inga fights against mounting pushback, which becomes increasingly hostile. This is another of Hakonarson*s serio-comedies, an adroit look at an underdog*s triumph.

﹛﹛The Fever

﹛﹛Justino is an Indigenous widower in Brazil where he works long shifts as a security guard. From time to time he returns to his family in the Amazon. His daughter decides to study medicine and her decision disrupts what had been a very predictable life. In response, he comes down with a mysterious fever. Documentary filmmaker and visual artist Maya Da-Rin has come up with a film that challenges conventional expectations. She workshopped this production with nonprofessional actors and makes use of innovative storytelling techniques. She patiently and effortlessly weaves themes of family and so-called civilization into a blend of documentary style realism and mysticism. Indigenous actor Regis Myrupu is astounding and heartbreaking. Evoking the archetypal and the quotidian, the director*s feeling for her subject is in every compelling shot. This is a masterful tale of the significance of unheralded lives. Not to be missed.


﹛﹛This is a beautiful restoration of the radical 1972 antiwar film featuring, among others, Jane Fonda and Donald Sutherland. (The title is short for Free (or Fuck) The Army.) Francine Parker*s documentary captures the two actors on a live tour of the Pacific Rim in 1971 along with other stars in a vaudeville style show. These counterculture skits, songs 〞 which made serious political points 〞 subverted the traditional army entertainment provided by the likes of Bob Hope and the USO. In order to undermine the tour, the Army went as far as to promote the shows via erroneous start times. In 2009, the LA Times wrote: ※Denied permission to perform on U.S. bases, they set up shop in nearby coffeehouses and other venues.§ Arts Fuse review

﹛﹛Two Lottery Tickets

﹛﹛This Romanian film might be dismissed as a caper comedy, but it is too meticulous and shrewdly observed to fall into that slot. While the premise of a stolen lottery ticket is far from new, director Paul Negoescu ※provides fresh observations and pitifully endearing characters while poking meta fun at the austere Romanian New Wave movement he works within, and works to dismantle.§ (NY Times)


﹛﹛A scene from Berlin Alexanderplatz.

﹛﹛BERLIN ALEXANDERPLATZ in virtual cinemas through Kino Marquee.

﹛﹛Ezra Haber Glenn writes that this new adaptation of the pivotal modernist novel is sure to spark criticism from D?blin and Fassbinder loyalists, as well as those who might feel the film, while beautiful, is not politically progressive enough. Nonetheless, director Burhan Qurbani strikes the right chords: balancing between textual fidelity and contemporary relevance. Arts Fuse review.

﹛﹛Final Account

﹛﹛Now Playing Kendall Square Theater

﹛﹛This documentary, assembled by Luke Holland, is made up of? interviews he began conducing in 2008. His stated goal was locate and question the last surviving ※witnesses to the crimes of the Third Reich.§ He found more than witnesses 〞 he chatted with superannuated participants in the atrocity.

﹛﹛A Quiet Place Part II

﹛﹛Now Playing Kendall Square and Capital Theaters

﹛﹛Director John Krasinski*s second installment focuses on Emily Blunt and Millicent Simmonds as the Abbotts continue to battle blind alien creatures who use sound to hunt their prey. (Fuse review)


﹛﹛Now Playing Kendall Square and Capital Theaters

﹛﹛A more complex take on the nature of evil than usual in the Disney universe. This is by far the best of the Disney reboots. (Fuse Review)

﹛﹛〞 Tim Jackson


﹛﹛Singer C谷cile McLorin Salvant will be be performing ※At Home§ from May 10 through the rest of the month. Photo: courtesy of the artist.

﹛﹛C谷cile McLorin Salvant

﹛﹛through May 31



﹛﹛The phenomenal singer and songwriter C谷cile McLorin Salvant (multi-Grammy winner as well as a MacArthur ※genius§ fellow) is offering ※At Home,§ recorded in her Brooklyn loft, with her brilliant longtime piano accompanist, Sullivan Fortner (who alone is worth seeing), through May 31. All proceeds will benefit GHESKIO, a public health organization serving patients in Haiti. Arts Fuse review.

﹛﹛Eric Hofbauer, ※Return & Reckoning§

﹛﹛June 4 at 6 p.m.

﹛﹛Veterans Memorial Square, Watertown, MA

﹛﹛Live and in person!

﹛﹛The talented guitarist and composer Eric Hofbauer, who has taken on ※prehistoric jazz§ arrangements of Stravinksy (※The Rite of Spring§), Messiaen (※Quartet for the End of Time§), and Ellington (※Reminiscing in Tempo§) and a multidisc solo guitar project on American themes, as well as being a mainstay of Boston*s jazz and improv scene as bandleader and collaborator, here gathers a formidable quartet with saxophonist Noah Preminger, bassist Max Ridley, and Temidayo Balogun on gangan (the West African two-drumhead ※talking drum§). ?It*s live and in person outdoors at Watertown*s Veterans Memorial Square. It*s free, but ※donations are gratefully accepted.§

﹛﹛Cambridge River Stream Festival

﹛﹛June 5, 6 p.m.-9 p.m. (Repeated June 6 at 10 a.m.)


﹛﹛Cambridge Arts has reconceived the annual Cambridge River Festival for the COVID era. The streaming program will begin with a retrospective of highlights going back to 1988 (from Cambridge Community Television archives) and then proceed with new solo piano concerts by Rebecca Cline, Kevin Harris, Yoko Miwa, Tim Ray, and Bob Toabe, all recently recorded at the Cambridge Multicultural Arts Center. Each piano concert will be followed by a short interview with the artist. There will also be brief biographical videos about Terri Lyne Carrington, Billie Holiday, Shirley Horn, Nina Simone, Art Tatum, and Chick Webb. The show repeats Sunday morning at 10. It*s available at the CCTV website as well as CCTV*s Channel 9.

﹛﹛※A Love Supreme§

﹛﹛Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra with Wynton Marsalis

﹛﹛June 10 at 7:30 p.m., available through June 16

﹛﹛Tickets: $20; $15 for subscribers


﹛﹛The JLCO*s ※spring virtual season§ concludes with this special orchestra performance of John Coltrane*s ※A Love Supreme§ (1965), directed by saxophonist Sherman Irby, with special guest saxophonist and vocalist?Camille Thurman. The program will also include ※Coltrane classics related to the theme of freedom.§

﹛﹛Trombonist Jeb Bishop. Photo: courtesy of the artist.

﹛﹛Jeb Bishop Quartet

﹛﹛June 12 at 5 p.m.

﹛﹛SW Corridor Park, Jamaica Plain

﹛﹛Trombonist Jeb Bishop*s r谷sum谷 includes his stints in improv and creative music scenes in Chicago, where he was a founding member of the Ken Vandermark 5, and, more recently, in the North Carolina Triangle, before moving to Boston in 2015. For this show, he brings together trumpeter Forbes Graham, bassist Nate McBride, and drummer Eric Rosenthal. Another concert in Alex Lemski*s essential Creative Music Series, it*s outdoors and free, with ※donations gratefully accepted.§ The Jamaica Plain SW Corridor Park is off of South and Hall Streets, near the Orange Line*s Forest Hills Station.

﹛﹛Live with Carnegie Hall: A Tribute to Chick Corea

﹛﹛June 12 at 7:30 p.m.

﹛﹛Facebook and YouTube

﹛﹛The Live with Carnegie Hall free online series presents this birthday tribute to Chick Corea (he would have been 80) with an all-star lineup: pianists Joey Alexander, Eliane Elias, Hiromi, Vijay Iyer, Ren谷e Rosnes (with bassist Ron Carter), and Gonzalo Rubalcaba. Also on the program is classical pianist Maxim Lando, who performed alongside Corea during his last Carnegie Hall appearance, in 2017.

﹛﹛〞 Jon Garelick


﹛﹛FilmFest by Rogue Dancer: Dance 101

﹛﹛Viewable now through June

﹛﹛Online viewing

﹛﹛Rogue Dancer has just launched its latest online screendance film festival, Dance 101. This month*s festival celebrates films created by student screendance filmmakers in honor of graduation month and the challenges faced by many young artists during this pandemic. Enjoy a variety of new films hailing from the US, Japan, Serbia, UK, and Russian Federation.

﹛﹛The Time Traveler*s Lens

﹛﹛Viewable remotely or in person (see website)

﹛﹛Luminarium Dance Company launches a groundbreaking new production using 360-degree videography and interdisciplinary choreography to present an extended reality (XR) immersive performance that illuminates the history of the colonnade at Princeton Battlefield State Park (Princeton, NJ). This site-specific performance comprises five 360-degree dance films; they are viewable as augmented reality (AR) across the battlefield grounds on visitors* personal mobile devices or as a virtual reality (VR) experience outside of the grounds. As the time traveler, you control the lens as you explore the layers of past identities presented by this historic site, which include ties to the American Revolution (1777), Thomas Ustick Walter, famed architect of the US Capitol (1835), the Delaware & Raritan Canal (1901), as well as other glimpses into the colonnade*s rich and storied past.

﹛﹛〞 Merli V Guerra



﹛﹛Dream Boston Plays, a new series of short audio plays (15 in number at the moment) produced by the Huntington Theatre Company. Each drama is set at a specific local landmark with one to three characters, and is about six minutes in length. All the productions are available on the Huntington*s website, as well as on Apple, Spotify, Google Podcasts, and Stitcher.

﹛﹛The first four entries were By the Rude Bridge by Melinda Lopez; Overture by Kate Snodgrass; McKim by Brenda Withers; and The 54th in *22 by Kirsten Greenidge. ※Conceived and commissioned by the Huntington artistic department, the company asked Huntington Playwriting Fellow alumni Greenidge, Snodgrass, Withers, and Lopez to imagine their favorite locations, landmarks, and friends in a future Boston, when people can once again meet and thrive in the city 〞 a vision of a future Boston that is somewhere between dream and reality.§ Arts Fuse review of Episodes 1 through 5.

﹛﹛Seven additional titles were added to the lineup in July, which included works by local artists John Oluwole ADEkoje, Miranda ADEkoje, J. Sebasti芍n Alberdi, Rosanna Yamagiwa Alfaro, Elle Borders, Patrick Gabridge, and John Kuntz. The local landmarks that serve as settings for this round of audio plays include Franklin Park, Harvard*s Memorial Church, the Harvard Art Museums, the Old State House, the Fenway nightclub Machine, Harrison Avenue, and Malcolm X Boulevard.

﹛﹛The new quartet includes works by Pulitzer Prize winner David Lindsay-Abaire, Huntington Playwriting Fellows Masha Obolensky and Jacqui Parker, and writer and actor Kadahj Bennett. The settings for this round include Dorchester Heights in South Boston, Wally*s Cafe Jazz Club on Massachusetts Avenue in the South End, Nantasket Beach, and the Minuteman Trail in Concord.

﹛﹛※These four plays think about the future from different vantage points than the previous Dream Boston plays,§ says Charles Haugland, the Huntington*s Director of New Work, ※amid the vaccine rollout, the return to in-person school, a rapid housing market, and the return to places in our city we haven*t been in a long time.§

﹛﹛Mikhail Baryshnikov makes a ※special appearance§ as Anton Chekhov in chekhovOS /an experimental game.

﹛﹛chekhovOS /an experimental game/ Inspired by The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov. Conceived & Directed by Igor Golyak

﹛﹛Produced by Golyak & Sara Stackhouse. Co-presented by Boston Fig & Snowrunner Productions. This production of the workshop will be followed by a live talkback with members of the cast & creative team. Moderated by Tom Abernathy, Studio Narrative Director at ArenaNet, on May 30 at 11 a.m.. ET on June 6 at 8 p.m. ET, and on June 13 at 8 p.m. ET.

﹛﹛This is an ambitious ※work-in-progress created during the pandemic, a way for artists to work through the themes of the play, the encroaching virus, and a moment of change in the world around us. The project was developed in the new and emerging genre of virtual theater at Arlekin*s (zero-G) from a small but mighty group of collaborators, helmed by Golyak. This international team of designers and technical engineers collaborated with Golyak both virtually and on-site in Arlekin*s new Zero Gravity (zero-G) Virtual Performance Lab in Needham, MA, for several months to create the functionality and online environment for this project.

﹛﹛Williamstown Theatre Festival on Audible

﹛﹛※In an innovative collaboration devised to meet the challenges posed by the global health pandemic, the 2020 season will be the first-ever complete theatre season released by Audible, the leading creator and provider of premium audio storytelling. The WTF Season on Audible is being produced in an audio-only format safe to elevate, entertain, and transform audiences from the comfort of their homes.§ Here is what is currently up and ready for earplay.

﹛﹛A Streetcar Named Desire: ※Following his 2019 production of A Raisin in the Sun, Tony Award nominee Robert O*Hara returns to WTF to direct this Tennessee Williams masterpiece. With Emmy, Grammy, and six-time Tony Award winner Audra McDonald as Blanche DuBois alongside Carla Gugino as Stella. Haunted by her past, Blanche seeks refuge with Stella and Stanley (Ariel Shafir) in New Orleans, where she wrestles with the nature of her sister*s husband, her sister*s denial, and her own unraveling mind.§

﹛﹛Photograph 51: ※In 1951, chemist Rosalind Franklin (Anna Chlumsky) works relentlessly in her King*s College London lab, closing in on a major discovery that could unlock the mysteries of the DNA molecule. Undermined by her colleague Maurice Wilkins (Omar Metwally), she struggles to compete with rival team Watson and Crick (David Corenswet and Aasif Mandvi) as pressure intensifies to produce results. The script is by Anna Ziegler; Susan Stroman directs.§

﹛﹛Animals by Stacy Osei-Kuffour. Directed by Obie Award winner Whitney White: ※Lydia (Aja Naomi King) and Henry (Jason Butler Harner)*s dinner guests (Madeline Brewer and William Jackson Harper) are about to arrive when Henry*s spontaneous marriage proposal threatens to burn the evening to a crisp. Wine bottles and years of unspoken tensions are uncorked, and, before the evening is through, Lydia must confront her long-held fears and feelings if she*s going to commit to a future with Henry. World premiere of a comedy that marches into the muddy intersection of romantic entanglement, identity, pride, and survival.§

﹛﹛Chonburi International Hotel & Butterfly Club by Shakina Nayfack. Directed by Laura Savia. The world premiere of a play that centers on a vibrant, international group of transgender women who band together at a hotel in Thailand to confront the challenges and joys of gender confirmation surgery. Despite the group*s warm welcome, Kina (Nayfack) prepares for her life-altering operation all alone. But a caring nurse (Ivory Aquino), a wise couple (Kate Bornstein and Annie Golden), and a karaoke-loving bellhop (Telly Leung) may be exactly who she needs to ignite her truest sense of self.§

﹛﹛Paradise Blue by Dominique Morisseau. Directed by Ruben Santiago-Hudson. ※It*s 1949 in Detroit*s Black Bottom neighborhood, and there*s no better place to hear or play jazz than Paradise Club. Blue (Blair Underwood), club owner and trumpeter, can wail like no other, but as forces outside the club conspire to irreparably change life inside and outside Paradise*s walls, he must decide whether to stay or sell. Beholden to his girlfriend (Kristolyn Lloyd) and fellow bandmates (Andr谷 Holland and Keith Randolph Smith), Blue faces an uncertain future as he reckons with his troubled past. When Silver (Simone Missick), a smooth and mysterious newcomer from Louisiana, steps onto the scene, everyone in Paradise must choose how to survive.§

﹛﹛Wish You Were Here by Sanaz Toossi. Directed by Gaye Taylor Upchurch. ※Nazanin (Marjan Neshat) and her friends are on the brink of adulthood. As they prepare for a wedding, outside their living room the Iranian Revolution simmers and threatens to alter the course of their lives. Set over the course of 14 years, this timely play (receiving its world premiere) shines a light on the daring potential of friendship amid the relentless aftershocks of political upheaval.§

﹛﹛Row, Book by Daniel Goldstein. Music and lyrics by Dawn Landes. Directed by Tyne Rafaeli. Inspired by the nonfiction work A Pearl in the Storm by Tori Murden McClure. ※Tori (Grace McLean) aims to be the first woman to row solo across the Atlantic. As a child, she raised her younger brother Lamar (John McGinty), defending him against discrimination and neighborhood bullies. Now, with nothing but her body and a hand-built boat, she squares off with her own tormentor: the ocean. The world premiere of a musical that interrogates and reveals the resilience, fear, and ambition inside one individual undeterred by the odds.

﹛﹛A production of An Enemy of the People at the Hudson Theatre in New York City, 1937. Via Museum of the City of New York.

﹛﹛A Lie Agreed Upon written and directed by Tony Estrella, a version of Henrik Ibsen*s An Enemy of the People . Digital staging from The Gamm Theatre, streaming from June 11 through 14.

﹛﹛An Ibsen play that has come into its own. ※The future is looking bright in Springfield! A brand new hot springs Spa and Resort is about to open its doors. Hotels and shops are booming in anticipation of a blockbuster tourist season. The Spa*s visionary chief medical officer Dr. Thomas Stockman is being hailed as a local hero for turning the humdrum town into a must-see destination until he discovers that the springs themselves are poisoned and he insists on doing the &right thing.* Morality meets self-interest, inconvenient truths fight alternative facts and minority rights clash with majority rule in a powerful, timely interrogation of individual conscience versus the will of the ※people.§

﹛﹛Black Beans Project written and performed by Melinda Lopez and Joel Perez. Directed by Jaime Casta?eda. A virtual staging by the Huntington Theatre Company available for on-demand streaming through June 6.

﹛﹛The healing setup: ※a sister and brother (played by creators Lopez and Perez) meet virtually to share a secret family recipe that forces them to reveal secrets of their own. They share memories and make plans, transforming their pandemic panic to renewal.§ This is a ※comedy about family, food, and finding the strength to move on§ and ※invites audiences to open a bottle of wine, chop some garlic, and savor the possibility of connecting with family after a long time apart.§ Arts Fuse review

﹛﹛Songs for a New World by Jason Robert Brown. Directed by Paul Daigneault. A benefit production for the SpeakEasy Stage Company, streaming from May 26 through June 8.

﹛﹛※A moving collection of powerful songs about life, love, and the choices that define us. Directed by SpeakEasy Producing Artistic Director Paul Daigneault, music directed by Jos谷 Delgado, and featuring nine of Boston*s most exciting musical theatre performers, this exquisitely crafted song cycle weaves characters and history together for a timeless look at the importance of self-discovery.§ Note: SpeakEasy*s production was filmed live without an audience on the Wimberly Stage in the Calderwood Pavilion, in full observance of all Covid protocols.

﹛﹛A scene from Double Edge Theatre*s Leonora, la maga y la maestra. Photo: Maria Baranova-Suzuki.

﹛﹛Leonora, la maga y la maestra, staged by Double Edge Theatre. A PEAK HD/ALL ARTS broadcast and online premiere event. Recorded at Montclair State University in October 2020. Free 〞 the performance will remain on the All Arts website for the next 3 years.

﹛﹛Along with the Double Edge performance, there is a livestreamed conversation available for viewing between DE Artistic Director Stacy Klein and renowned Surrealist scholar Dr. Susan L. Aberth. The chat includes visual references to Carrington*s artwork as well as the troupe*s staging of Leonora, la maga y la maestra. Aberth*s books Leonora Carrington: Surrealism, Alchemy and Art (Lund Humphries)§ and the recently published The Tarot of Leonora Carrington (Fulgur Press) have been profound influences on Double Edge*s work inspired by the world of Leonora Carrington.

﹛﹛Tiny Beautiful Things, based on the memoir by Cheryl Strayed, adapted for the stage by Nia Vardalos. Co-Conceived by Marshall Heyman, Thomas Kail, & Nia Vardalos. Directed by Lyndsay Allyn Cox. Staged by the Gloucester Stage Company via live, in-person performances at the Windhover Performing Arts Center, Rockport, MA, June 11 through 27.

﹛﹛The script is ※a celebration of the simple beauty of being human, and explores Cheryl Strayed*s journey as the unpaid, anonymous advice columnist Dear Sugar. Over the years, thousands of people turned to Sugar for words of wisdom, compassion, and hope. At first unsure of herself, Sugar finds a way to weave her own life experiences full of laughter and hope together with the deep yearning and heartrending questions from her readers.§ Celeste Oliva stars.

﹛﹛Lilly Rose Valore (Alice) in Alice in Rainbowland. Photo: Carven Creative Media

﹛﹛Alice in Rainbowland, a virtual production produced and curated by Ana Masacote through her Queer Bodies in Motion project. Pay-what-you-can tickets with a recommended household price of $15 are available. A virtual premiere celebration featuring a DJ will begin at 7:30 p.m. ET on June 10, prior to the 8 p.m. ET premiere of the show.?

﹛﹛※Queer Bodies in Motion is a dance project aiming to build awareness of LGBTQ discrimination and celebrate queer identity. This is its debut artistic endeavor, a re-imagining of Alice in Wonderland told through dance, music, and LGBTQ pride. This collaborative show is devised by and highlights queer artists and allies 〞 including dancers, musicians, and the creative community from MA, NY, and RI. This is dedicated to queer youth and community, for the courage to show up.§

﹛﹛Who Could Ask for Anything More? The Music of George Gershwin. Music by George Gershwin. Lyrics by Ira Gershwin and DuBose Heyward. Additional lyrics by Ballard MacDonald, Buddy DeSylva and Gus Kahn. Conceived by Julianne Boyd and Darren R. Cohen. Musical Direction by Darren R. Cohen Choreographed by Jeffrey L. Page. Directed by Julianne Boyd. Staged by Barrington Stage at its outdoor production center tent, June 10 through July 3.

﹛﹛※Join us in celebrating one of the greatest composers of the 20th Century, George Gershwin. Featuring a cast of stellar Broadway singers, this concert will have you asking yourself ※Who Could Ask for Anything More?§

﹛﹛〞 Bill Marx

﹛﹛Walking Plays, an audio play series, Lyric Stage Company of Boston

﹛﹛According to Lyric Stage*s artistic director Courtney O*Connor, this new audio series was created as a way to bring ※a form of live theatre§ to a public that hasn*t been able to experience it since theaters closed because of the Covid pandemic.

﹛﹛※The Walking Plays provide a way for audiences to explore both the hidden gems and iconic landmarks of Boston and the joy of theatre beyond the Lyric Stage doors. This series will commission six 10- to 15-minute plays exploring private moments we experience in public. Listeners will be able to use maps provided by the Lyric Stage to walk along with the plays or to listen to them from their own homes. Together, the plays will form a loop beginning in Copley Square, winding through the city, and ending at a special location in the Back Bay. The plays will be available for free on the Lyric Stage*s website.

﹛﹛※The Walking Plays will include &Easter eggs* throughout the walk, which will add another level of enjoyment for listeners. Executive director Matt Chapuran said, &It*s a great chance for people who are unfamiliar with the city of Boston to learn more about what makes it so special. Or a chance to fall in love with the city all over again.*

﹛﹛※The series premiered with the release of On Paying Attention by David Valdes, a Cuban-American playwright interested in stories of personal identity, especially global majority and LGBTQ experiences. He teaches playwriting at Boston Conservatory at Berklee, as well as English at Tufts University.

﹛﹛Next to premiere is Monster in the Sky by Ginger Lazarus. ※Lazarus is an award-winning playwright and screenwriter whose works have been featured in her native Boston area, around the country, and across the pond in London. She holds a master*s degree in playwriting from Boston University and currently teaches at the University of Massachusetts Boston.§

﹛﹛Four more plays were released in the winter and spring: Kill the Dogs, Knock Them Over, by Liana Assim; In Any Face, by Miranda Austen ADEkoje;?Living Water, by Melinda Lopez and Micah Rosegrant; and Monstrat Viam, by Patrick Gabridge. Another series is planned for this summer, featuring the Rose Kennedy Greenway.

﹛﹛〞 Evelyn Rosenthal

﹛﹛Roots and World Music

﹛﹛Ryan Lee Crosby

﹛﹛City Winery, 80 Beverly Street, Boston, MA

﹛﹛Doors at 6 p.m., music at 8 p.m.

﹛﹛The Official Bluesman of the Arts Fuse is performing in his first i- person concert in over a year. ※Reuniting with longtime collaborator Grant Smith on percussion, the singer/songwriter will present original and traditional material inspired by the Bentonia and North Mississippi blues styles, performed on 12 string guitar and lap style dobro, alongside Smith*s drum kit and West African calabash.§

﹛﹛※With roots that go back to Boston*s rock scene in the early *00s, Crosby*s guitar playing and singing has matured and deepened over the last decade, the result of annual European tours and numerous pilgrimages to the Mississippi Delta, where he has spent time learning and performing with Grammy nominated Bentonia bluesman Jimmy ※Duck§ Holmes at the historic Blue Front Cafe. Crosby recently recorded a new album of songs inspired by these experiences with renowned producer Bruce Watson (Fat Possum Records) at his Memphis studio.§

﹛﹛〞 Bill Marx

﹛﹛For the first time in 15 months, this space will list a robust number of live music performances by Boston artists. It*s worth keeping in mind that every venue has taken a different route to reopening. Some are easing their audiences back and maintaining distancing for now. Others have returned to pre-pandemic arrangements 〞 in some cases because artist contracts for rescheduled shows mandate every ticket be sold if a state of emergency has been lifted. At least one venue, the City Winery, will have a mix of distanced and normal seating concerts this summer. So do your homework, figure out your comfort level 〞 and celebrate that live music has finally returned!

﹛﹛Fiddler Mari Black and? accordionist Cory Pesaturo will be performing in Cambridge this week to benefit the New England Musicians Relief Fund. Photo: Club Passim.

﹛﹛While concerts are gradually coming back, working musicians are hardly out of the woods after going over a year with almost no opportunities to generate income. Fiddler Mari Black and accordionist Cory Pesaturo are generously making their June 3 show at Starlight Square in Cambridge a benefit for the New England Musicians Relief Fund. Black and Pesaturo promise that their show ※Unscripted: Improvised Music from Around the World§ will give the two virtuosos a chance to collaborate on everything from tango to klezmer.

﹛﹛A great (and free) jazz series that managed to continue during the pandemic is back in action with the return of outdoor weather. The Makanda Project revives its big band tribute to Makanda Ken McIntyre on June 5 at 4 p.m. at Bartlett Place in Nubian Square, Boston.

﹛﹛Word is that The Porch in Medford has removed the plexiglass that surrounded the bandstand, which is good. It allowed the venue to skirt Covid restrictions, but muddied the room*s sound. Real deal bluesman Professor Harp is there on June 5. Fans of guitarist Duke Levine will be thrilled to hear that he*ll be playing with the B-3 Kings on June 9.

﹛﹛The beloved Burren in Somerville has turned the outdoor lot behind the restaurant into a summer venue, and listeners have raved about the sound and sightlines. Jason Anick*s Gypsy Jazz All-Stars, featuring prodigy guitarist Henry Acker, are there on June 6, and the klezmer of Ezekiel*s Wheel will be heard on June 13.

﹛﹛The Reggae Takeova is keeping Jamaican sounds alive at its backyard Dorchester digs with Dub Apocalypse on June 6 and rocksteady/ska masters Pressure Cooker on June 13.

﹛﹛At City Winery on June 10 the Yemen Blues Duo finds the common ground between American guitar sounds and Middle Eastern grooves.

﹛﹛〞 Noah Schaffer

﹛﹛Visual Art

﹛﹛K?the Kollwitz, Storming the Gate Plate 5 from A Weavers* Revolt, 1893-1897, etching and sandpaper on paper. Photo: Wiki Common.

﹛﹛The German artist K?the Kollwitz is especially well known for her series of arresting prints, including A Weavers* Revolt and Peasants* War, which were issued in cycles. Her images focus on the hunger and suffering of the poor as well as the impact of war on the working class. She also chronicles her struggles under the Nazis, who purged her works from German museums and forbade her from exhibition. Less well known is Kollwitz*s influence on socially engaged artists in South Africa, where her work was introduced by exiles fleeing Nazism. On Tuesday, June 1, the Harvard Art Museums will present a virtual Art Talk, ※K?the Kollwitz and the South African Left.§ Graduate intern and Ph.D. candidate Jessica R. Williams will explore how images from Peasants* War circulated among South Africa*s left movements and how Kollwitz influenced a new generation of modernists there.

﹛﹛The talk takes place online via Zoom and admission is free, though registration is required via an online form at

﹛﹛The MIT campus in Cambridge is famous as an outdoor museum dedicated to 20th-century art, design, and architecture. There are works by Pablo Picasso, Louise Nevelson, Amish Kapoor, and Mark Di Suvero, among many others, available to anyone who wants to walk by. On Fridays at noon, MIT offers small-sized tours of its outdoor art collection, led by Campus and Public Programs manager Emily Garner. Starting on June 4, these tours will be open to the general public, but their size is limited to eight, so register early at the List Art Center website.

﹛﹛Lucia Hierro, Casita, 2021. Courtesy of the artist and LatchKey Gallery, New York. Photo: Lucia Hierro.

﹛﹛The Dominican-American artist Lucia Hierro, based in New York City where she was born, will have her first solo museum exhibition at the Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art in Ridgefield, CT, opening? on June 7. Hierro, a 2014 graduate of the Yale School of Art who works in sculpture, digital media, and installation, draws on a range of influences to confront 21st-century capitalism, including Pop Art, Minimalism, Conceptual Art, and European still-life painting. Her Aldrich exhibition concentrates on work from three series: the Mercado (Market) series (2014 to the present), the Gates series (begun in 2021 on commission from the Aldrich), and her most ambitious wall mural to date.

﹛﹛Also opening June 7 at the Aldrich is Hugo McCloud: from where I stand. McCloud, drawing on his biracial and working class roots, uses nonart materials, including roofing metal, tar, and plastic shopping bags, to create pieces that explore social and cultural memory. He has a strong interest in issues of race, class, and economic identity. The exhibition, McCloud*s first solo museum show, will occupy the entire first floor of the Aldrich and will include some 35 works from private collections and the artist.

﹛﹛Rawlings, St. Louis Cardinals Jersey, worn by Stan Musial, 1952. Courtesy of the Smithsonian*s National Museum of American History.

﹛﹛The Florence Griswold Museum in Old Lyme, CT, opens Social & Solitary: Reflections on Art, Isolation, and Renewal on June 5. The show selects historic and contemporary works from the museum*s collection to ※create an opportunity for [our audience] to process this momentous ongoing event§ 〞 the year-long COVID-19 pandemic. The exhibition explores the particular effects 〞 particularly social isolation and disruption 〞 that the pandemic brought with it, incorporating the museum*s extensive grounds and gardens (once the setting for a summer artists* colony) and a new outdoor installation by artist Jackie Sumell.

﹛﹛In conjunction with the opening of Worcester*s new Polar Park, the ※Home of Your Worcester Red Sox,§ the Worcester Art Museum has organized The Iconic Jersey: Baseball x Fashion. The show, which opens on June 12, seems particularly timely now that ball parks all over the United States are reopening to the public. It explores 170 years of baseball uniform history, using the ubiquitous baseball shirt to examine ※the relationship between aesthetics and athletics, fashion and function, nostalgia and modernity.§ The show includes jerseys of all types displayed along with fabric swatch books, logo designs, and historic photographs. It is the first art museum exhibition with the baseball jersey at its center.

﹛﹛〞 Peter Walsh

﹛﹛Author Events


﹛﹛Virtual Event: Alice Waters 每 Events 每 Harvard Book Store

﹛﹛We Are What We Eat: A Slow Food Manifesto

﹛﹛June 2 at 8 p.m.

﹛﹛Tickets are $31 including copy of book

﹛﹛※In We Are What We Eat, Alice Waters urges us to take up the mantle of slow food culture, the philosophy at the core of her life*s work. When Waters first opened Chez Panisse in 1971, she did so with the intention of feeding people good food during a time of political turmoil.

﹛﹛Customers responded to the locally sourced organic ingredients, to the dishes made by hand, and to the welcoming hospitality that infused the small space〞human qualities that were disappearing from a country increasingly seduced by takeout, frozen dinners, and prepackaged ingredients. Waters came to see that the phenomenon of fast food culture, which prioritized cheapness, availability, and speed, was not only ruining our health, but also dehumanizing the ways we live and relate to one another.§

﹛﹛Virtual Panel: The Stonewall Generation with Jane Fleishman 每 Porter Square Books

﹛﹛The Stonewall Generation

﹛﹛June 3 at 7 p.m.

﹛﹛Tickets are $5 suggested donation

﹛﹛※A sex-positive and unapologetic depiction of LGBTQ culture and identity, The Stonewall Generation includes the voices of those frequently marginalized in mainstream telling of LGBTQ history, lifting up the voices of people of color, transgender people, bisexual people, drag queens, and sex workers. We need to hear these voices, particularly at a time when our country is in the middle of a crisis that puts hard-won civil and human rights at risk, values we*ve fought for again and again in our nation*s history.§

﹛﹛Virtual Event: Sebastian Junger 每 Events 每 Harvard Book Store


﹛﹛June 4 at 8 p.m.

﹛﹛Tickets are $31 with signed book, $5 suggested without

﹛﹛※In Freedom, Junger weaves his account of this journey together with primatology and boxing strategy, the history of labor strikes and Apache raiders, the role of women in resistance movements, and the brutal reality of life on the Pennsylvania frontier. Written in exquisite, razor-sharp prose, the result is a powerful examination of the primary desire that defines us.§

﹛﹛Virtual Event: Lauren Sandler with Joanna Rakoff, This Is All I Got 每 Porter Square Books

﹛﹛June 7 at 7 p.m.

﹛﹛Tickets are suggested donation of $5

﹛﹛※Every day, more than forty-five million Americans attempt to survive below the poverty line. Every night, nearly sixty thousand people sleep in New York City-run shelters, 40 percent of them children. In This Is All I Got, Sandler brings this deeply personal issue to life, vividly depicting one woman*s hope and despair and her steadfast determination to change her life despite the myriad setbacks she encounters.

﹛﹛This Is All I Got is a rare feat of reporting and a dramatic story of survival. Sandler*s candid and revealing account also exposes the murky boundaries between a journalist and her subject when it becomes impossible to remain a dispassionate observer. She has written a powerful and unforgettable indictment of a system that is often indifferent to the needs of those it serves, and that sometimes seems designed to fail.§

﹛﹛Virtual Event: Lisa Taddeo 每 Events 每 Harvard Book Store

﹛﹛Animal: A Novel

﹛﹛June 8 at 7 p.m.

﹛﹛Tickets are Free, with $5 suggested donation

﹛﹛※Joan has spent a lifetime enduring the cruelties of men. But when one of them commits a shocking act of violence in front of her, she flees New York City in search of Alice, the only person alive who can help her make sense of her past. In the sweltering hills above Los Angeles, Joan unravels the horrific event she witnessed as a child 〞 that has haunted her every waking moment 〞 while forging the power to finally strike back. Animal is a depiction of female rage at its rawest, and a visceral exploration of the fallout from a male-dominated society.§


﹛﹛Virtual Event: ?Hola, Papi! John Paul Brammer with Meredith Goldstein 每 brookline booksmith

﹛﹛?Hola, Papi!

﹛﹛June 9 at 7 p.m.

﹛﹛Tickets are $36

﹛﹛※From popular LGBTQ advice columnist and writer John Paul Brammer comes a hilarious, heartwarming memoir-in-essays chronicling his journey growing up as a queer, mixed-race kid in America*s heartland to becoming the ※Chicano Carrie Bradshaw§ of his generation. JP will be joined in conversation with Meredith Goldstein, author and advice columnist for the Boston Globe, to discuss his new memoir. In ?Hola Papi!, JP shares his story of growing up biracial and in the closet against the backdrop of America*s heartland, while attempting to answer some of life*s toughest questions: How do I let go of the past? How do I become the person I want to be? Is there such a thing as being too gay ? Should I hook up with my grade school bully now that he*s out of the closet? §

﹛﹛Laurie Frankel with Nicola Griffith: One Two Three 每 brookline booksmith

﹛﹛One Two Three: A Novel

﹛﹛June 11 at 7 p.m.

﹛﹛Tickets are $35.99 with signed bookplate, Free without

﹛﹛※Everyone knows everyone in the tiny town of Bourne, but the Mitchell triplets are especially beloved. Mirabel is the smartest person anyone knows, and no one doubts it just because she can*t speak. Monday is the town*s purveyor of books now that the library*s closed〞tell her the book you think you want, and she*ll pull the one you actually do from the microwave or her sock drawer. Mab*s job is hardest of all: get good grades, get into college, get out of Bourne.

﹛﹛It seems life might go on the same forever, until the first moving truck anyone*s seen in years pulls up每unloading new residents and old secrets. Soon, the Mitchell sisters are taking on a system stacked against them and uncovering mysteries buried longer than they*ve been alive.§

﹛﹛In The Heights Virtual Launch with Lin-Manuel Miranda, Quiara Alegr赤a Hudes, and Jeremy McCarter [Ticketed] 每 Porter Square Books

﹛﹛In The Heights: Finding Home

﹛﹛June 15 at 8 p.m.

﹛﹛Tickets are $40, including book

﹛﹛※Before Hamilton became a global phenomenon, before Lin-Manuel Miranda became a household name, a little show called In the Heights shook up Broadway with its hip-hop and salsa soundtrack and big, bilingual heart. In the new book In the Heights: Finding Home, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Quiara Alegr赤a Hudes, and Jeremy McCarter tell the story of the show*s humble beginnings, from rehearsals in a bookstore basement to the Broadway smash (and soon-to-be feature film!) that created an unbreakable community and a new kind of family for everyone involved.

﹛﹛Join Miranda, Hudes, and McCarter for a very special In the Heights Virtual Book Launch. Sure to be an unforgettable conversation on creativity, community, and finding home, this is your chance to hear directly from the creative team behind the timeless story of how one neighborhood 〞 Washington Heights 〞 can speak to the world.§

﹛﹛〞 Matt Hanson


﹛﹛※I believe is the one great word against metaphysical fear.§-Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West (1918)

﹛﹛Though misunderstood by Israel, there is no more compelling form of Jihadist[1] power than power over death. The perilous result of such Israeli misunderstanding is that the nation*s counter-insurgent strategies could remain detached from what is most important: Israel*s core struggle against diverse Palestinian foes is not about calculable material losses or body counts. It is about achieving creative victories of ※mind over mind,§ not ※mind over matter.§[2]

﹛﹛For Israel, complex problems concerning anti-terrorist operations are always about more than comparative weapon systems. Arrow and Iron Dome are manifestly efficient elements of Israel*s indispensable defense, but they deal narrowly with transient technological remedies. Looking ahead, as analysts must in any meaningful scientific inquiry, there will need to be more capably dedicated attention to root causes. Here, in the ritually adversarial Middle East, this suggests enhanced Israeli wariness about the Palestinian side*s faith based policies.

﹛﹛Inter alia, this will mean a more comprehensive and intensive focus in Jerusalem/Tel Aviv on variable enemy searches for ※martyrdom§ and immortality. Conceptually, it will require a deeply intellectual look at Oswald Spengler*s thoughtful affirmations of ※I believe,§ primal declarations offered in a pleading response to humankind*s overriding ※metaphysical fear.§ In essence, to succeed longer-term against intermittent Palestinian insurgencies and wars, Israeli planners will need to pay greater attention to palpable enemy hopes for ※power over death.§

﹛﹛There is more. Israel*s basic counter-terrorism policies ought never be too centered on military tactics, military hardware or prospective ※victory.§ More correctly, these policies should be focused on enduring and potentially existential considerations. For Israel, all national strategic policy should flow purposefully from a broadly antecedent knowledge of science[3] and of human leadership preference orderings.[4]

﹛﹛In the end, all arguments to allow Israel to ※finally defeat§ Hamas via an ※unleashed§ IDF miss a much wider point. Also missing the point was the dissembling counsel of former US President Donald J. Trump and his breathtakingly vapid son-in-law. To wit, Jared Kushner, main architect of the Abraham Accords,[5] affirmed imperiously that Trump*s agreement exposed unceasing conflict with Hamas as ※nothing more than a real-estate dispute between Israelis and Palestinians.§


﹛﹛There is more. Soon, Israel*s Ministry of Defense and IDF could learn more from Oswald Spengler and Sigmund Freud[6] than from Carl von Clausewitz[7] and Yehoshafat Harkabi.[8] This is not to suggest that Palestinian fighters in Gaza are necessarily or even singularly motivated by any all-consuming religious faith in ※martyrdom,§ but rather that the raison d*etre of their recurrent insurgent violence is partially determined by rigid zero-sum calculations. Assuredly, the secular political search for Palestinian sovereignty and self-determination[9] (statehood)[10] does represent a conspicuous incentive for Hamas and its allies, but this loudly-proclaimed incentive is also less primal.

﹛﹛In vital national security matters, there exist variously convergent and divergent elements of law. On the one hand, prima facie, those far-flung jihadist insurgents who would seek to justify their attacks on Israeli civilians in the name of ※martyrdom§ are defilers of international law. Always, lawful insurgents, even those operating with some seemingly defensible ※just cause,§ must satisfy longstanding jurisprudential limits on permissible targets and permissible levels of violence.

﹛﹛Even if the Palestinian side can be granted a ※just cause§ for their protracted insurgency against Israel, it can never be lawful for Hamas or allied forces to hurl rockets at Israel*s noncombatant populations. In such cases, unlike the reciprocal and retaliatory armed force used by Israel, there is plain and incontestable evidence of ※criminal intent§ or mens rea.

﹛﹛Though appearances and manipulations can readily suggest otherwise, Israeli policies that are intended to thwart Jihadist terrorist indiscriminacy are generally supportive of international law. For Israel, unlike Hamas, there are no gratuitous attacks on civilians, For Israel, there is no mens rea.

﹛﹛Israel remains under widespread criticism for presumed ※disproportionality§ in its use of force contra Hamas. But this criticism ignores the authoritatively legal content requirement of ※proportionality.§[11] Under all applicable codified and customary law, this authentic requirement has absolutely nothing to do with equivalent force. Rather, it defines a particular and verifiable standard of ※military necessity.§[12]

﹛﹛Under always-binding rules, an insurgent force (here Hamas) is prohibited from placing its active military assets among noncombatant populations[13] (this war crime is known specifically as ※perfidy§), while a counter-insurgent military force (here IDF) must be constrained by what is presumptively ※necessary§ to achieve operational success. For Jerusalem/Tel Aviv, there are no corresponding proportionality obligations to use equal or less violence than the Palestinian side, but only to take all needed steps to ensure that Israel*s use of force remain humanely bounded by ※necessity.§

﹛﹛Under authoritative international law, which is always a part of a state*s domestic law, even ※sacred§ rights of insurgency must exclude any deliberate targeting of civilians and/or force intended to inflict gratuitous suffering. Empty political witticisms aside, no insurgent force ever has a right to employ ※any means necessary.§ Shallow revolutionary slogans may prove politically useful in mobilizing popular support against Israel, but they still have no tangible jurisprudential content.

﹛﹛In law, any insurgency that intentionally blurs the lines between combatant and non-combatant populations is impermissible. Irrespective of any apparent ※just cause,§ it is still ※terrorism§[14] when insurgents murder noncombatants, whether by guns, bombs, knives or automobiles. In these recognizable matters, there can be no proper legal exceptions[15] and no legal defense arguments based on presumably reciprocal wrongs.

﹛﹛Tu quoque, an already-discredited legal position, stipulates that because the ※other side§ is guilty of similar, equivalent or allegedly greater kinds of criminality, ※our side§ is evidently free of legal wrongdoing. In law, significantly, an argument for tu quoque is inherently invalid, prima facie, especially after the landmark judgments handed down at the Nuremberg (Germany) and Far East (Japan) post-World War II ad hoc criminal tribunals.[16]

﹛﹛For both IDF and Palestinian insurgent forces, the right to armed force[17] can never supplant the peremptory rules of humanitarian international law. Such primary or jus cogens rules (norms that permit ※no derogation§[18]) are correctly referenced as either the law of armed conflict orthe law of war. Attentiveness to this basic law must remain an integral part of any civilized nation*s counter-terrorism operations. Historically and conceptually, this law has its doctrinal roots in the Hebrew Bible, the Law of Athens, and Roman Law (most notably Emperor Justinian*s Institutes).

﹛﹛There is more. During the latest Gaza war, diversionary legal manipulations persist. Endlessly, it seems, supporters of Palestinian terror-violence against noncombatants still insist that ※the ends justify the means.§ Leaving aside the ordinary ethical standards by which any such argument must be clarified as indecent and incorrect, even the most noble ends can neverjustify inhumane means.

﹛﹛It*s not really complicated. For more than two thousand years, core legal principles have specified that intentional violence against the innocent isprohibited. Always.

﹛﹛Clich谷s do not make law. In relevant jurisprudence, one person*s terrorist can never be another*s ※freedom-fighter.§ Although it is certainly true that particular insurgencies can sometimes be judged lawful or law-enforcing (consider for example the American revolutionaries of the 18th century), even presumptively allowable resorts to force must conform to the settled laws of war. In law, every use of force must be judged not only in reference to its announced cause, but also to its adopted means.

﹛﹛Always, these are discrete or separate judgments.

﹛﹛By definition, whenever an insurgent group resorts to manifestly unjust or indiscriminate means, its actions constitute terrorism. Even if adversarial Palestinian claims of a hostile ※occupation§ were widely accepted to be reasonable, any corollary claims of entitlement to indiscriminate means would remain patently false and morally disfiguring.

﹛﹛It*s not really complicated. International law cannot be invented and reinvented according to particular situations. It maintains very specific and determinable form and content. It cannot be defined and redefined by insurgent groups or insurgent patrons. This is especially the case when insurgent violence intentionally targets a designated victim state*s fragile and most vulnerable civilian populations. In those cases, ipso facto, insurgent violenceis terror-violence.

﹛﹛There is more. National liberation movements that fail to meet the test of just means can never be protected as lawful or legitimate. Even if ※compelling law§ were somehow to accept the factually questionable argument that terror groups had fulfilled the broadly accepted criteria of ※national liberation,§ (e.g., Iran-supported Hamas), they would still not satisfy the equally germane legal standards of discrimination, proportionality, and military necessity. These standards are expressly applied to insurgent or sub-state armed forces by the common Article 3 of the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, and by the two 1977 Protocols to these key Conventions.

﹛﹛Indisputably, all war and insurgency is governed by common standards of ※humanity.§[19] These overarching criteria are binding upon all combatants by virtue of a still more comprehensive customary and conventional international law, including Article 1 of the Preamble to the Fourth Hague Convention of 1907. This foundational rule called the ※Martens Clause§ makes all persons responsible for upholding the ※laws of humanity§ and the associated ※dictates of public conscience.§

﹛﹛Under compulsory international law, terrorist crimes mandate universal cooperation in both apprehension and punishment. As punishers of ※grave breaches§ under international law,[20] all states are expected to search out and prosecute or extradite individual terrorists. In no conceivable circumstances, and whatever the presumed expectations of religious faith, are states permitted to regard terrorist ※martyrs§ as legitimate ※freedom fighters.§ In principle, this is also true for Israel, which was formed according to the inherently Jewish principles of Natural Law.

﹛﹛In law, rights can never stem from wrongs.[21] Even if certain populations continue to insist on treating the most recalcitrant jihadist insurgents as ※martyrs,§ such treatment can have no exculpatory or mitigating effect on attendant terrorist crimes. Despite any alleged justness of cause, and this includes frequently-cited adversarial references to ※sovereignty§ and ※self-determination,§ nothing in international law can ever justify the deliberate targeting of non-combatant Israeli populations. In this connection there are notable ironies. During the extant Gaza War, such targeting has killed and injured not only Palestinians working in Israel, but also Thai agricultural laborers whose only interest is supporting their indigent families back home.

﹛﹛In essence, Israel*s jihadist foes are in perpetual search for the preeminent form of power on planet earth. This means power over death. Accordingly, Jerusalem/Tel Aviv*s counter-terrorism policy-makers ought never lose sight of this power and its primal place in determining certain enemy decisional calculi. In the end, power over death could even trump every other more tangible form of power, including those forms that are based upon aircraft carriers, missiles or technologically advanced weapon systems. The true cause of this expectation lies at the heart of what it means to be human.

﹛﹛Philosopher Alfred North Whitehead would argue that in all world politics, any deeply felt promise of immortality must be of utterly ※transcendent importance.§[22]

﹛﹛This signifies, among other things, that the primary Israeli orientation to wage battle in counter-terrorism must always focus on ※mind over mind,§ not just ※mind over matter.§ Whenever enemies assign an absolute primacy to the words ※I believe,§ it should immediately become an ※automatic§ signal to Jerusalem that the best Israeli response must be undertaken at a recognizably intellectual level.[23] Though intangible and not easily understood by ordinary politicians or planners, an enemy search for power over death can prove decisively all-important and plainly unresponsive to ordinary threats of military harm.

﹛﹛What next? To blithely dismiss such a distressingly complex reality will be tempting for Israel, but that dismissal could prove catastrophic.[24] When a determined enemy is driven by presumptively existential notions of ※I believe,§ the Israeli arsenal of plausible counter-measures must be rendered correspondingly flexible. This analytic imperative would become even more obvious should that enemy become endowed (directly or indirectly) with nuclear or other weapons of mass-destruction.[25]

﹛﹛Though such ominous endowment is presently implausible, it is by no means inconceivable. In this regard, in the longer term, strategic policy planners must bear in mind that acts of nuclear terrorism need not require authentic nuclear weapons, and could involve ※only§ conventional rocket attacks on Israel*s Dimona reactor.[26] In the final analysis, Israel*s deterrence posture will have to function as a seamless web,[27] allowing decision-makers to choose from an already-available range of purposeful policy options.

﹛﹛Any such fateful choice could concern insurgent foes who seek not ※merely* sovereignty and self-determination,[28] but ※power over death.§

﹛﹛[1] For scholarly discussion of Jihad, see Andrew G. Bostom, ed., THE LEGACY OF JIHAD: ISLAMIC HOLY WAR AND THE FATE OF NON-MUSLIMS (New York: Prometheus Books, 2005, 759 pp.). In the Middle East, where theological doctrine divides into the dar al-Islam (world of Islam) and the dar al-harb (world of war), acts of terror against unbelievers have generally been accepted as expressions of sacredness. In turn, individual sacrifice derives, in large part, from a very conspicuously hoped-for power over death. By adopting atavistic practice, the Jihadist terrorist expects to realize an otherwise unattainable immortality. For Hamas, which most openly seeks secular power as a new sovereign state of Palestine, certain obligatory aspects of sacrificial terror must never be overlooked. These aspects, underscoring the two-sided nature of terror/sacrifice 每 that is, the sacrifice of ※The Unbeliever§ (or ※Apostate§) and reciprocal sacrifice of ※The Martyr§ 每 is codified within the Charter of Hamas, as a ※religious§ problem.§ For authoritative details of the Hamas Charter, see: Louis Ren谷 Beres:

﹛﹛[2] In the 17th century, French philosopher Blaise Pascal remarked prophetically, in his aptly titled Pens谷es: ※All our dignity consists in thought#It is upon this that we must depend#Let us labor then to think well: this is the foundation of morality.§ Similar reasoning characterizes the writings of Baruch Spinoza, Pascal*s 17th-century Jewish contemporary. In Book II of his Ethics, Spinoza considers the human mind or the ※intellectual attributes,§ and 每 drawing additionally from Ren谷 Descartes 每 defines an essential theory of learning and knowledge.

﹛﹛[3] ※Science,§ says philosopher Jose Ortega y*Gasset in Man and Crisis (1958), ※by which I mean the entire body of knowledge about things, whether corporeal or spiritual 每 is as much a work of imagination as it is of observation#. the latter is not possible without the former#.§ But where exactly is there sufficient evidence of ※imagination§ in Israel*s counter-terrorist strategies?

﹛﹛[4]This brings to mind relevant considerations of human rationality and irrationality. More precisely, a state or insurgent-group actor is determinedly rational to the extent that its leadership always values collective survival more highly than any other conceivable preference or combination of preferences. An insurgent force such as Hamas might not always display such a ※helpful§ preference ordering.

﹛﹛[5]These agreements concern Arab states with which Israel has never actually been ※at war.§

﹛﹛[6]See Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion; Totem and Taboo; and Moses and Monotheism. At the end of Chapter VI in The Future of an Illusion, where he has been discussing the ※psychical origin of religious ideas,§ Freud concludes as follows: ※We shall tell ourselves that it would be very nice if there were a God who created the world, and was a benevolent Providence, and if there were a moral order in the universe, and an after-life; but it is very striking fact that all this is exactly as we are bound to wish it to be. And it would be more remarkable still if our wretched, ignorant, and downtrodden ancestors had succeeded in solving all these difficult riddles of the universe.§

﹛﹛[7]To a point, the author of On War is correct in assigning permanent strategic primacy to the ※political object,§ but this assignment also needs a further broadening to include Oswald Spengler*s ※metaphysical fear.§

﹛﹛[8] See Yehoshafat Harkabi, The Bar Kokhba Syndrome: Risk and Realism in International Politics (Chappaqua, New York: Rossel Books, 1983), p. 132.

﹛﹛[9] See Louis Ren谷 Beres, ※Self-Determination, International Law and Survival on Planet Earth,§ ARIZONA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW, Vol. 11, No. 1., 1994, pp. 1-26. See also: Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations (The Principle of Equal Rights and Self-Determination of Peoples), G.A. Res. 2625, U.N. GAOR, 25th Sess., and Supp. No. 28 at 121, U.N. Doc. A/8028 (1970), reprinted in 9 I.L.M. 1292; Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, G.A. Res. 1514, U.N. GAOR, 15th Sess., Supp. No. 16, at 66, U.N. Doc. A/4684 (1960); Principles Which Should Guide Members in Determining Whether or Not an Obligation Exists to Transmit the Information Called for Under Article 73e of the Charter, G.A. Res. 1541, U.N. GAOR, 15th Sess., Supp. No. 16, at 29, U.N. Doc. A/4684 (1960).

﹛﹛[10]Some Israeli supporters of Palestinian statehood argue that its prospective harms to Israel could be reduced or eliminated by ensuring that Arab state*s immediate ※demilitarization.§ For informed legal reasoning against this argument, see: Louis Ren谷 Beres and (Ambassador) Zalman Shoval, ※Why a Demilitarized Palestinian State Would Not Remain Demilitarized: A View Under International Law,§ Temple International and Comparative Law Journal, Winter 1998, pp. 347-363; and Louis Ren谷 Beres and Ambassador Shoval, ※On Demilitarizing a Palestinian `Entity* and the Golan Heights: An International Law Perspective,§ Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vo. 28., No.5., November 1995, pp. 959-972.

﹛﹛[11]The law of armed conflict is largely concerned with the principle of proportionality, which has its jurisprudential and philosophic origins in the Biblical Lex Talionis, the law of exact retaliation. The ※eye for eye, tooth for tooth§ can be found in three separate passages of the Jewish Torah, or Biblical Pentateuch. These Torah rules are likely related to the Code of Hammurabi (c. 1728- expression 1686 BCE) 每 the first written evidence of penalizing wrongdoing with exact retaliation. In matters concerning personal injury, the code prescribes an eye for an eye (# 196), breaking bone for bone (#197), and extracting tooth for tooth (#199). Among the ancient Hebrews, we must speak not of the Lex Talionis, but of several. The Lex Talionis appears in only three passages of the Torah. In their sequence of probable antiquity, they are as follows: Exodus 21: 22-25; Deuteronomy 19: 19-21; and Leviticus 24: 17-21. All have similarities to various other Near Eastern legal codes. These three passages address specific concerns: hurting a pregnant woman, perjury, and guarding Yahweh*s altar against defilement. See Marvin Henberg, Retribution: Evil for Evil in Ethics, Law and Literature, 59-186 (1990). In contemporary international law, the principle of proportionality can be found in the traditional view that a state offended by another state*s use of force, if the offending state refuses to make amends, ※is then entitled to take `proportionate* reprisals.§ See Ingrid Detter De Lupis, The Law of War, 75 (1987). Evidence for the rule of proportionality can also be found in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) at Art. 4. Similarly, the American Convention on Human Rights allows at Art. 27(1) such derogations ※in time of war, public danger or other emergency which threaten the independence or security of a party§ on ※condition of proportionality.§ In essence, the military principle of proportionality requires that the amount of destruction permitted must be proportionate to the importance of the objective. In contrast, the political principle of proportionality states ※a war cannot be just unless the evil that can reasonably be expected to ensure from the war is less than the evil that can reasonably be expected to ensue if the war is not fought.§ See Douglas P. Lackey, THE ETHICS OF WAR A ND PEACE, 40 (1989).

﹛﹛[12]The principle of military necessity is defined most authoritatively as follows: ※Only that degree and kind of force, not otherwise prohibited by the law of armed conflict, required for the partial or complete submission of the enemy with a minimum expenditure of time, life and physical resources may be applied.§ ADAM ROBERTS & RICHARD GUELFF, DOCUMENTS ON THE LAWS OF WAR 10 (3rd ed. 2000) (quoting U.S. DEP*T OF THE NAVY ET AL., THE COMMANDER*S HANDBOOK ON THE LAW OF NAVAL OPERATIONS, NWP 1-14M,, (July 2007)). The term ※military necessity§ is found, inter alia, in the 1946 Judgment of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg: Extracts on Crimes Against International Law, in ADAM ROBERTS & RICHARD GUELFF, DOCUMENTS ON THE LAWS OF WAR 155 (1989).

﹛﹛[13]Codified criteria for distinguishing between combatant and noncombatant populations were introduced for the first time under international law at the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949. Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War art. 3, Aug. 12, 1949, 6 U.S.T. 3516, 75 U.N.T.S. 287 [hereinafter Geneva Convention IV].

﹛﹛[14] Under international law, terrorist movements are always Hostes humani generis, or ※Common enemies of mankind.§ See: Research in International Law: Draft Convention on Jurisdiction with Respect to Crime, 29 AM J. INT*L L. (Supp 1935) 435, 566 (quoting King v. Marsh (1615), 3 Bulstr. 27, 81 Eng. Rep 23 (1615) (※a pirate est Hostes humani generis§)).

﹛﹛[15] For a discussion of authoritative criteria to distinguish permissible insurgencies from impermissible ones, see: Louis Ren谷 Beres, ※The Legal Meaning of Terrorism for the Military Commander,§ CONNECTICUT JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, Vol. 11., No. 1., Fall 1995, pp. 1-27.

﹛﹛[16] Also worth pointing out here is that the criminal responsibility of leaders under international law is not limited to direct personal action or to official position. On the peertinent principle of command responsibility, or respondeat superior, see: In re Yamashita, 327 U.S. 1 (1945); The High Command Case (The Trial of Wilhelm von Leeb), 12 LAW REPORTS OF TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS 1 (United Nations War Crimes Commission Comp., 1949); see Parks, COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY FOR WAR CRIMES, 62 MIL.L. REV. 1 (1973); O*Brien, THE LAW OF WAR, COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY AND VIETNAM, 60 GEO. L.J. 605 (1972); U S DEPT OF THE ARMY, ARMY SUBJECT SCHEDULE No. 27 每 1 (Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Hague Convention No. IV of 1907), 10 (1970). The direct individual responsibility of leaders is also unambiguous in view of the London Agreement, which denies defendants the protection of the act of state defense. See AGREEMENT FOR THE PROSECUTION AND PUNISHMENT OF THE MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS OF THE EUROPEAN AXIS, Aug. 8, 1945, 59 Stat. 1544, E.A.S. No.472, 82 U.N.T.S. 279, art.

﹛﹛[17] This right must always be understood in terms of the continuously decentralized system of international law bequeathed at Westphalia in 1648. See: Treaty of Peace of Munster, Oct. 1648, 1 Consol. T.S. 271; and Treaty of Peace of Osnabruck, Oct. 1648, 1., Consol. T.S. 119. Together, these two treaties comprise the Peace of Westphalia.

﹛﹛[18] According to Article 53 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: ※#a peremptory norm of general international law is a norm accepted and recognized by the international community of states as a whole as a norm from which no derogation is permitted and which can be modified only by a subsequent norm of general international law having the same character.§ See: Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Done at Vienna, May 23, 1969. Entered into force, Jan. 27, 1980. U.N. Doc. A/CONF. 39/27 at 289 (1969), 1155 U.N.T.S. 331, reprinted in 8 I.L.M. 679 (1969).

﹛﹛[19]Underlying these common standards is a unifying concept of human ※oneness.§ The history of western philosophy and jurisprudence contains many illustrious examples of such welcome cosmopolitanism. Most notable are Voltaire and Goethe. We need only recall Voltaire*s biting satire in the early chapters of Candide and Goethe*s oft-repeated comment linking the contrived hatreds of belligerent nationalism to declining stages of human civilization. We may also note Samuel Johnson*s famously expressed conviction that patriotism ※is the last refuge of a scoundrel;§ William Lloyd Garrison*s observation that ※We cannot acknowledge allegiance to any human government#. Our country is the world, our countryman is all mankind;§ and Thorsten Veblen (※The patriotic spirit is at cross-purposes with modern life.§) Of course, there are similar sentiments discoverable in Nietzsche*s Human, all too Human and in Fichte*s Die Grundz?ge des gegenwartigen Zeitalters.§ Finally, let the reader recall Santayana*s coalescing remark in Reason and Society: ※A man*s feet must be planted in his country, but his eyes should survey the world.§ The ultimate point of all these cosmopolitan remarks is that narrow-minded patriotism is inevitably ※unpatriotic,§ at least in the sense that it is not in the genuine long-term interests of citizens or subjects.

﹛﹛[20].The term ※Grave Breaches§ applies to certain serious infractions of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Protocol I of 1977. The actions defined, as ※Grave Breaches§ in the four Conventions must be performed willfully or intentionally, and against the different groups of ※protected person§ identified by each Convention. The High Contracting Parties to the Geneva Conventions are under obligation ※to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed,§ a grave breach of the Convention. As defined at Art. 147 of Geneva Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (6 U.S.T. 3516, signed on Aug. 12 1949, at Geneva), Grave Breaches ※shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the present Convention: willful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, willfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a protected person, compelling a protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power, or willfully depriving a protected person of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed in the present Convention, taking of hostages and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly. Reference to Grave Breaches can also be found in the INTERIM REPORT OF THE COMMISSION OF EXPERTS, UNITED NATIONS DOCUMENT, S/25274, and January 2, 1993, at Sec. 3., Art. 47.

﹛﹛[21] Ex injuria jus non oritur.

﹛﹛[22] See Whitehead*s Religion in the Making (1926).

﹛﹛[23] In prophetic words of poet Guillaume Apollinaire (The New Spirit and the Poets, 1917): ※It must not be forgotten that it is perhaps more dangerous for a nation to allow itself to be conquered intellectually than by arms.§

﹛﹛[24] This brings to mind the closing query of Agamemnon in The Oresteia by Aeschylus: ※Where will it end? When will it all be lulled back into sleep, and cease, the bloody hatreds, the destruction§?

﹛﹛[25] For earlier looks at the expected consequences of specifically nuclear attacks, by this author, see: Louis Ren谷 Beres, Apocalypse: Nuclear Catastrophe in World Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980); Louis Ren谷 Beres, Mimicking Sisyphus: America*s Countervailing Nuclear Strategy (Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1983); Louis Ren谷 Beres, Reason and Realpolitik: U.S. Foreign Policy and World Order (Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1984); and Louis Ren谷 Beres, Security or Armageddon: Israel*s Nuclear Strategy (Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1986).

﹛﹛[26]Hamas fired rockets at Dimona back in 2014. Earlier, Saddam Hussein launched Scud-B rockets toward Israel during the 1991 Gulf War. For an early and informed consideration of reactor attack effects, see: Bennett Ramberg, Destruction of Nuclear Energy Facilities in War (Lexington MA: Lexington Books, 1980); and Bennett Ramberg, ※Attacks on Nuclear Reactors: The Implications of Israel*s Strike on Osiraq,§ Political Science Quarterly, Winter 1982-83; pp. 653 每 669. More recently, see: Bennett Ramberg, ※Should Israel Close Dimona? The Radiological Consequences of a Military Strike on Israel*s Plutonium-Production Reactor,§Arms Control Today,May 2008, pp. 6-13.

﹛﹛[27]See, by this author and former Israeli Ambassador Zalman Shoval, at West Point, Pentagon:

﹛﹛[28]On this choice, ancient philosophy can be helpful. More precisely, Plato*s theory, offered in the fourth century B.C.E, seeks to explain all political choice in terms of epiphenomena, an unstable realm of half-truths and distorted perceptions. In contrast to the uniformly stable realm of immaterial Forms, a realm from which all genuine knowledge must be derived, the political arena is dominated by myriad contradictions of the reflected world, contradictions that inevitably fail to account for ※metaphysical fear.§

﹛﹛Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)